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Social Science perspective
Max Weber`s idea of modern bureaucracy was highly criticized for not being in line with the ever-changing market conditions. He was the first to develop this theory and most of the criticism was directed towards him. Weber regarded this as unfair because he did not consider bureaucracy as something that people should follow (Weber 2010). He said that this would only work best to promote organizational efficiency. It is argued that the current organization settings would not have been possible without bureaucracy theory. In addition, the concepts of authority, power, and leadership have a direct relationship with bureaucracy. As a philosopher and sociologist, he extended his thoughts to cover issues related to economics, science, as well as religion (Weber 2010). Weber`s idea of modern bureaucracy applies to the British army in a number of ways. The officers of the British army are ranked in a hierarchical manner and all the operations involve impersonal rules. This means that orders come from the top officers to the juniors. It is important to note than the army operates as a model bureaucracy and although most of the wars led by the army, they are fought on behalf of the country.
The government has numerous bureaucracies including the military, transportation, communication, as well as economic productions. Weber`s principle on bureaucracy applies to the British army which has established, and observes, normative rules and regulations (Weber 2010). The officers in charge observe strict discipline and manage the office in the right manner. They also ensure that obedience is essential as per the imposition. During war, orders are issued from the top following the hierarchy of offices until they reach the ground men who carry out the missions. Due to increased division of labor and specialization, Weber developed the theory in an attempt to address the topic of increasing social productivity in a modern society. He argued that this was the only way of advancing modern life and society (Weber 2010).
Eugen Ehrlich contributed to the establishment of sociology and philosophy of law. He directed his research towards non-governmental sources of legal norms. Ehrlich`s work had great influence of the principle of living law and this led to the achievement of legal Realism in America (Ehrlich 2012). Initially, all the contents in the book living law were written by Ehrlich and contained numerous sections. These sections focus on the sociology of law. The first part of the living law identifies the strengths and weakness of Ehrlich`s study. The second part analyzes the principles of sociology of law and the link between sociology and jurisprudence (Ehrlich 2012). The third and fourth chapters deal with the contemporaries and the relevance of his social legal issues respectively. One of the primary objectives of his studies was to analyze the nature of law. The other goal was to defend the sociology principle of law by proving that it should be supported by numerous comparative researches. In addition, Ehrlich ensured that data was available for other researchers to guide them.
Despite the challenges that the sociology of law faces today, many positive contributions have helped address critical issues and establish legal principles and practice. It is emphasized that one should understand the link between society and law. The legal processes and systems ensure that Law interacts successful in the society leading to positive changes and control (Ehrlich 2012). Sociology of law has different approaches that help analyze society laws and enhance an interaction between legal, social factors and non-legal institutions, among others. In addition, it proves important in regulating legal issues, social change, control and development of legal institutions. Research concludes that sociology of law acquires numerous advantages from the frequent studies carried on other fields including law, economics, legal principles and studies on comparative law (Ehrlich 2012).
Studies reveal that the most efficient healthcare programs are based on a mutual understanding between the behaviors in the organization and the context in which they arise. It means that an improvement is achieved by comprehending the appropriate theory and using it in a knowledgeable manner (London & Rodgers 2010). The social science theory refers to the art and science of applying healthcare principles through a combination of strategies and methods from the social science. It calls for the application of ideas of how the society can change and establish ways of explaining the social structure, culture, gender, civilization, and ethnicity among others. The core themes demonstrated under the social science theory is the relationship between a person and community, genders, social life and race (London & Rodgers 2010). The media plays an important role in promoting a democratic society. The population depends on the media as their primary source of information and all their decision are dependent on the information received.
In the recent past, the media has been criticized for all sorts of issues including scandals, propaganda, manipulation, and declining profits. Most people are of the view that the media has become biased leading to omissions, damage, and inaccuracy of information communicated to the public. Research argues that leaders of large organizations and corporations have contributed to these issues (London & Rodgers 2010). This has made it difficult for middle class citizens to enjoy and obtain objective views of the current situations affecting their country.
Leaders of large organizations are very influential in economical, cultural and political issues. They believe that power and money will help them control the media because it is a very influential tool which reaches thousands of people across states and globally. A free media advocates for democracy but the interruption by people with power leads to a manipulation of views, hence undermining democracy (Kuper 2012). The other issue is that competition has increased among different organizations. Leaders of large firms are seeking media intervention in order to influence buyers to buy their products. Printed media has been decreasing in sales due to the increase in electronic means of advertising. The different Medias are also competing because the number of advertisements (Kuper 2012) determines revenue. They seek the support of leaders in order to get continuous advertising for their businesses. Alternatively, they have also adopted other strategies such as entertainment, inflicting fear and spreading scandals. Prominent businesses men have interfered with the freedom of media and instead of supporting democracy, they are busy discussing issues of politics and culture.
New technology refers to the application of digital technology in mass communication. New technology and forms of communication have rapidly made the concept of mass media irrelevant. In the last two years, the introduction of internet has completely changed the media landscape (Ward 2013). Most people argue that even though the internet is in its infant stage, it has done more harm to mass media than anything else. The effect of internet on society, government, commerce and the state in general is great. It has also changed the manner in which media production is achieved. Technology analysts suggest that mass communication institutions should encourage to students understand the new concepts of mass media and the impact they have on the industry. New programs should be introduced that will help cover these new technologies in details. Most people argue that the internet is gradually becoming part of people`s lives and the probability of it replacing electronic devices such as television is very high (Ward 2013). This prediction is supported by the argument that the internet was introduced two years ago but the rate at which it has replaced old media is phenomenal. It has provided a platform for new industries to advertise their products, new artists to promote their music and big companies to go global
It is argued that people have little or no time to sit down. The young generation has not been left behind. They are at the forefront exploring every new technology that arises (Ward 2013). The internet led to the development of websites such as twitter, Facebook and YouTube. They have replaced television as the only place where children spend their time. Online viewing has increased due to advancement in technology. It is also more convenient to watch activities online because one can watch whatever he or she wants. The other advantage is that the internet can reach remote areas where television cannot stay connected due to issues of power and signal, among others. In addition, the quality of contents from the web is high as compared to that of cable television (Ward 2013). Speed of getting access to the internet is high and there are no limits. You can download as much content you can and watch later. In television, one can only view one program at a time.
In reference to social science theory, social inclusion refers to a society where individuals are valued and their personal differences respected. In addition, their basic wants are fulfilled. The society ensures that every individual in the community enjoys certain rights including employment, training, education and healthcare among others (Boardman 2010). Numerous values support social inclusion. First, every member is a participant. This means that no tests are conducted to ascertain whether and individual should included in the society or not. Second, everyone is capable of learning and can communicate. This helps include the disabled by arguing that because they cannot speak, it does not mean that they have nothing to say. Further, all the members need support and can contribute (Boardman 2010). Finally, it argues that togetherness is oneness. Every member is unique and their difference is one of the most valuable resources.
Adults with learning disabilities can live a healthy life just like the normal human beings. However, this is not possible because some are isolated and discriminated from the communities. Bullying and harsh treatment experienced by these people has a damaging impact on their lives (Clark 2011). They see themselves living in a small world that has limited opportunities and they spend most of their times with caretakers, parents or people with similar characteristics. Adults with learning difficulties face some identified barriers to social inclusion. First, the society can be an obstacle that limits the parents and guardians of these people from accessing the right healthcare facilities, leisure opportunities, and education. They may have an idea on where to find the best services but abandoning them makes it difficult and worse for them (Clark 2011). The other barrier is that there has been inadequate support for those who provide care to these disabled people. This occurs especially with people requiring special attention. Further, disabled people have little or no say over aspects concerning their lives. The other obstacle is that the services provided to the disabled are not specifically done to fulfill their needs (Clark 2011). Moreover, they are denied the rights to employment and education among others. It is argued that every member in society should work towards eliminating such barriers in order to enhance a modern society where everyone is valued and respected. This will also ensure that all the society members play their part.
Boardman, J. (2010). Social inclusion and mental health, Royal College of Psychiatrists. London.
Clark, CL. (2011). Adult day services and social inclusion: better days. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London.
Ehrlich, E. (2012). Fundamental principles of the sociology of law.Mass, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
Kuper, A. (2012). The Social Science Encyclopedia. Routledge
London, HI & Rodgers, FA. (2010). Social science theory structure and application. Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, N.J., U.S.A.
Ward, D. (2013). The impact of new technology on the traditional media/ David Ward (issue ed.). Mahwah, NJ [u.a.], Erlbaum.
Weber, M. (2010). Max Weber on capitalism, bureaucracy, and religion: a selection of texts. Routledge, London.