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The engine valve technology is the process through which timing of a valve lift event is altered with the aim of reducing emissions, toning down the cost of fuel and improving the performance of the engine. BMW vehicles origin can be attributed to Germany. BMW is one of the largest carmakers in the world. It is the mother company of the car brand Rolls Royce. An entrepreneur named When Franz Josef Popp has fathered BMW to where it is today. The Company is almost one hundred years old. BMW is one of the vehicles to reckon with in the history of cars. Engine valve technology was first used by BMW on a 4-cylinder engine. To control the distance that the intake valves were lifted off their seats, the system used levers (Holt and Daniel 82-98). The process involved a computer-controlled motor that was used to drive the eccentric shaft that pushed the levers into gaps. Once the levers were pushed between the camshaft and the valve stems, these slowly increased the valve lift. When a vehicle is under a light weight and at idle speed, and under a light load, the quantity of intake valve opening is small. In this situation when the gas pedal is pushed, the computer increases the lift of the intake valve thus allowing more air into cylinders. This increases the speed of the vehicle. This work discusses how BMW embraced engine valve technology and the implications because of this move.
Valves are used to control how air and fuels get into the cylinders and also how air and fuel leave the cylinders. The duration the valves take when open and the extent to which the valves move to affect the efficiency of the engines. The earlier versions used by BMW had fixed timing and fixed lifts. This means that the duration taken by the valves when open and the extent to which the valves move are already set by the manufacturer. A normal throttle plate obstructs efficiency since it increases the workload of the engines thereby forcing the pistons to suck in air from areas of low pressure or vacuum in the engines intake system. This can be compared to air being drawn from a straw on one side while the other someone is also pulling the same straw from the other side. This condition is known as a pump loss. By restricting the air flow with a throttle plate, the engine works harder.
In the course of time, BMW have come up with engines that have improved the efficiency of these vehicles while reducing the fuel costs. For example, BMW introduced Valvetronic engines that have an old model throttle plate adjacent to the intake’s entry point. However, this entry point only closes when the engine is not in operation and for a little period after the engine ignites. Consequently, the throttle is thus enabled to remain open as the engine is operating. This ensures that a no- low-pressure area does not occur in the manifold thus the engines ability to pump air is not impeded (Holt and Daniel 75-82).
Nearly all BMW engines turbocharged engines are throttled by Valvetronic. The intake manifold of a supercharged engine or turbocharged is almost always above or at atmospheric pressure. Throttling of the valve does not necessarily offer vital benefit in a supercharged engine or turbocharged as it does in vehicles that are naturally aspirated. Nevertheless, according to a BMW spokesman Tom Plucinsky, as much as it does not create a significant benefit on these turbocharged vehicles, it improves throttle. This is because the duration for the turbo to put pressure at the intake tract is significantly reduced.
Control of Combustion
The most efficient and effective way of regulating the speed of a gasoline engine is by limiting the amount of air available for combustion. This is achieved by a device known as the throttle. A throttle is a swiveling plate that is connected to the accelerator pedal and acts as a gate in the passage that passes air to the cylinders in the engine. Instead of regulating how the air flows with the throttle plate where air enters the intake system, valve-throttling systems change the duration that the intake valves of the engines are opened. Consequently, control of the flow of air at the entry point of the cylinders is sustained. After the throttle plate is removed, the intake valve is then used in the regulation of the flow of air. This results in the intake manifold remaining at atmospheric pressure and thus the engine does not face the same resistance from the opposite side. The result of this is that pumping loss is greatly reduced under lighter loads, and this leads to better performance of the engine thus lowering the cost of fuel. Low fuel costs translate to decreased cost of production and a more stable economy (Hartman and Jeff 114-127). The result is a fall in the pumping losing light loads that translates to better response of the vehicle and ultimately lowering the cost of fuel.
Increased Fuel Economy
BMW Valvetronic presents the buyer with direct, instant benefits when it comes to fuel consumption and decrease of emissions from the exhaust. Additionally the dynamic performance and instant response of the engine improve simultaneously. BMW valves also offer a greater standard of smoothness when running since the valves move slightly in an accurate restricted process. The advancement in the fuel economy guaranteed by this idea of throttle-free engine load management is roughly 10 per cent in the European Union cycle and nearly 10 per cent under emblematic driving conditions experienced by the customer. The general rule is that fuel saving versus other conceptions increases the driver operating the vehicle at fewer loads and high engine speed. The BMW valves are capable of performing the most superior concept of using the throttle butterflies thus giving an unmatched combination of unprompted engine response. Additionally, it is capability of producing ultra-fine measure of power and performance under low fuel usage (Hartman and Jeff 121-127).
Perfectly Suited For All Fuel Grades
BMW Valvetronic is highly beneficial to the buyer since it offers a very advanced fuel economy without compromising the terms of emissions. Additionally, the valve engine can function without the elaborate and does not need sulfur-free like a direct- injection petrol engine, thus attaining its status as a superior fuel economizer. BMW Valvetronic is capable of running on all commercially accessible petrol grades, that is, the consumer accesses all the advantages achieved if driving to countries without a national wide supply of sulfur-free fuel. Contrasting the fuel consumption figures of BMW in the present day and its predecessor, there is a longer range with extra-urban fuel usage in the EU test cycle (Simister, John, Andrew, and Freeman 133-146).
Other advantages engine valve technology included:
- It maintains free I ignition system using individual coils.
- It uses hydraulic valve compensation to maintain free valve drive effectively.
- It minimizes emissions through a special and unique manifold design in its advanced catalyst adjacent to the engine.
- It achieves minimal fuel consumption and friction because of roller bearings in the valve drive.
- The valve engine reduces temperature by 65% due to its coolant flows around the head.
- There is reduced power consumption by hydraulic pump because the power steering fluid warms up faster.
- It reduces power consumption by about 65%due to reduced water pump by half.
- It gives a maximum running smoothness due to its flexible two-mass flywheel.
BMW has continuously made remarkable progress in their engine valve technology. Their improved technology in developing their products has even reduced the time for manufacturing the products. Their aim is to minify the amount of hardware required and avail the skills in a new engine valve technology. BMW has also benefited from simulation when coming up with the design for their engine valve technology. Computer aided exercise has made it easy for BMW to achieve its objectives in manufacturing valve engines with the above advantages (Hartman and Jeff 75-84).
There is a greater risk when using high standard of hardware and software complexity and BMW is no exception while developing their Valvetronic engines. BMW has been making costly mistakes in the process of improving their engine technology. It takes time to understand how new system works. The usage of direct-injection technology has led to significant drawbacks such as in making exhaust emission treatment, robust combustion process and costs.
First Working Model
The initial BMW model to go into the global market back in 2001 with a huge production spark-ignition engine with wholly variable Vanos valve and Valvetronic control was 316ti Compact. The first model of innovatively developed was a four-cylinder 4-valve spark-ignition units that displaced 1.8 liters, and developed a rotation of 175 Newton meters (Nm). This model had a maximum output of 85kW. BMW’s latest Valvetronic 4-cylinder power units have capacities of 1.8-2.0 liters (Hartman and Jeff 115-22).
The BMW’s engine size was reduced by 100 centimeters. This is as compared to the earlier generation of power units that had a rotation of up to 175Nm from 165Nm. The output was increased to 85kW up from 77kW. The displacement of the 2.0-litre engine was raised by 5% and the rotation went up by at least 11% up from 180Nm to 200Nm. Consequently, engine output went up to 105kW from 87kW. This resulted to a specific rotation of 100Nm/liter and output of 52.5kW/liter.
Every driver experiences this improved engine performance through the more strong rotation curve, and BMW’s dynamic performance on the roads is a clear indication of the advantages of the extra rotation. Over 90% of the new BMW’s engine revolutions start at 2000 rpm with rotation starting at approximately 3,750 rpm. Consequently, the output of the engine remains constant at its peak in a long range of speed. The 4.4-liter unit produces a maximum of 245kW and the machine has fuel consumption of 10.9 liters per 100 kilometers. The engine complies with the EU4 regulations that were not mandatory until the year 2005. The fuel service intervals were extended up to 25000 miles or 40,000kilometers (Hartman and Jeff 115-134).
Among the most significant objectives was to lessen fuel consumption. The BMW engines produce a particular improvement of fuel economy, above all, at low amounts. When idling, consumption of fuel reduces by roughly 25%. Additionally, the overall development in the Europe’s fuel consumption test cycle was 12%. The owners of BMW will enjoy a good experience on the roads as well as enhanced economy and fuel conservation on the roads. Utilizing full potential of the strength of the BMW engine does not lead to the driver having bigger fuel efficiency than the old model’s engine. This is as a result of the engine running like a fully opened throttle butterfly. However, under real and normal driving situations, non-throttle load management reduces consumption of the fuel practically (Hartman and Jeff 124-138).
Engine Valvetronic technology provides a combination of invention elements thus it is far inconceivable with an in engine with spark-ignition. The introduction of the globe’s initial intake manifold offering infinite disparity in various lengths serves to enhance rotation. A particular high point of BMW engines that have management Valvetronic load is that it has significantly enhanced air/fuel mixture ensuring fuel conservation, optimum refinement and spontaneity. Valve technology is crucial as it activates the engine breathing process, which is air intake timing and exhaust timing. Stoichiometric fuel ration in DFI gives the best and the highest-level output. The combustion process is crucial as it help in the fulfillment of the worldwide standard set for all exhausting emission. The usage of direct-injection technology has led to significant drawbacks such as in making exhaust emission treatment, robust combustion process and costs. Valvetronic incorporates an important advancement of fuel usage with excellent engine reaction and control allowing maximum valve timing under normal running circumstances (Noakes and Andrew 56-77). The outcome is a smooth and free running of the engine under part load with very little or no throttle effect. Maximum fuel/air management guarantees vital benefits in fuel efficiency compared with a conservative 4 cylinder engine achieving the same standard as the present day’s lean-burn concepts. Additionally the engine with vavetronic does not need NOx removal catalyst and can be used globally with all kinds and fuel grade
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