Sample on Business Paper

Today’s an Army Airborne Infantry unit in the United States American has to be combat ready unit with a short notice usually within 24 hours call  to defend the nation against foreign and domestic threats and defend homeland security with land warfare. In order for the unit to be efficient in combat, each member from a platoon down to a squad level must trust each other with Leadership, Duty, Respect, Selfless Services, Honor, Integrity and Personal Courage. Soldiers must learn and live these Seven Core Army Values with them every day in everything they do. These traits are taught when Soldiers first entered their Basic Combat Training until they leave the military service.

Identification and Defining the Problem

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Most people wonder how do measure unit effectiveness? Well, in the military, there are three indicators that the military uses to measure unit’s effectiveness are as follows: Morale, Esprit De Corps, and Discipline.

1. Morale (DV) is the mental, emotional and spiritual state of mind of an individual.

H1: Morale is positively correlated with combat ready, moderated by the will to fight.

If morale increased combat ready in an Airborne Infantry units, it is a very reasonable to suppose that it will have the same effect in any other Airborne units with the same structure. A well Combat-ready unit feels the effect of combat ready by having high morale. High morale will strengthens combat ready and the will to fight. In order to measure morale, it would be necessary to collect the following data: age, gender, combat experience, and psychological state. The strength of morale depends on the matureness of man or woman, while psychological state defines its deepness. Therefore, we are to use DASS 21 form to define psychological issues if they are present (UNSW, n.d.a). They will provide with exact measurements of stress, depression, and anxiety levels that will be defining in determining morale (UNSW, n.d.b).

Each of this measurement scale presupposes determination of one of the following states by the respondents: Depression – “self-disparaging, dispirited, gloomy, blue, convinced that life has no meaning or value, pessimistic about the future, unable to experience enjoyment or satisfaction, unable to become interested or involved, slow, lacking in initiative” (UNSW, n.d. a); anxiety – “apprehensive, panicky trembly, shaky, aware of dryness of the mouth, breathing difficulties, pounding of the heart, sweatiness of the palms, worried about performance and possible loss of control” (UNSW, n.d. a); stress scale – “over-aroused, tense, unable to relax, touchy, easily upset, irritable, easily startled, nervy, jumpy, fidgety, intolerant of interruption or delay” (UNSW, n.d. a).

2. Esprit De Corps (DV) is a pride in unit, enthusiasm for unit and loyalty to unit.

H2: Esprit De Coprs is positively correlated with unit’s performance, moderated by unit state of mind. If Esprit De Corps increased unit’s performance within an Airborne infantry unit, it is reasonable to suppose that it will have the similar effect with other Airborne unit in the Army with the same structure. An airborne infantry unit’s cohesion feels the effect of unit’s performance by having good unit’s mentality. A unit with high Esprit De Corps will strengthens unit’s performance that the soldiers identify with.

In this case, we are to measure attitude of the solders to their units. In order to do so, we will ask the respondent to measure the following: Satisfaction – high/moderate/low/unsatisfactory in reference to the feeling of ‘pride’ of serving in this unit; willing to participate – high/moderate/low in reference to the desire of the solders to take part in every aspect of unit activities (excluding warfare – it is mandatory); loyalty – full/intervening/non-sufficient in reference to support and backup any unit member outside warfare and within (Figley, 2008; Trochim, 2006).

3. Discipline is a prompt obedience and effective performance of duty in respond to orders and initiation of right action in the absence of orders.

H3: Esprit De Corps is positively correlated with discipline, moderated by soldier’s duty. If Esprit De Corps increased the effect on discipline, it is reasonable to suppose that it will have the similar effect with other airborne infantry unit with the same structure. A disciplined unit forces itself to do its duty as well as soldier’s duty in any situation. Discipline can be measured rather simply – it is necessary to ask the following questions: Were there cases of disobedience (yes/no)? Were the reasons of it subjective or objective (subjective/objective)? Does soldier have second thoughts after hearing orders (no/what they are, if so)? Why is it so (no/description)? Does it affect discipline according to the solder’s understanding of the situation? Such approach would allow researchers evaluate discipline (absolutely anonymously) in terms of psychological attitude of units’ members to their commander officers and the entire situation within unit (Figley, 2008; Trochim, 2006).

Determination of the Alternative Solutions’ Set

Evaluation of all three indicators involves analysis and assessment of the statistical archival data as well. It is necessary to compare the official statements and statics regarding unit activities in different areas with the statements of the soldiers of those units. In case of substantial differences, it could provide researchers with information to consider and come to some conclusions. These conclusions would be useful for the further analysis of the survey and they can share the attitude of the researchers to each particular case within research unit – whether soldiers of officers act differently from what they say.

As an opposite of the research, conducted by Bacharach and Bamberger (2007), we are to ask all members of one of the Army Airborne Infantry units. It will provide us with opportunity to have statistical data regarding rather different people who serve in it (Mugo, n.d.).

Criteria

We were supposed to explain the process of conducting a survey in an Army Airborne Infantry unit (AAIU) in the United States in order to assess such issues as morale, pride (Esprit De Corps), and discipline. We were not rather clear regarding the measurement scale and sampling scheme. Therefore, the following amendments were made: we are going to create our own measurement scale; the sampling scheme we are to use can be described as the representatives from all subunits of the AAIU. As for the demographic variables, we are to use age and gender (Baker, 2003; Trochim, 2006a; Jacobsen, n.d).

Evaluation and Choice of Alternatives

It would be necessary to collect archival data. Therefore, we are to create the following plan regarding its collection: The archives of the units are going to be researched and analyzed in order to define the previous state of things regarding morale, pride (Esprit De Corps), and discipline in this unit. We are going to seek for reports, situations, issues, etc. that would provide us with certain statistics regarding the situations in the past (Baker, 2003; Trochim, 2006a; Jacobsen, n.d). It means that we are to perform the following operations: research within archives; collection of the data regarding all even the smallest issues regarding the above-mentioned characteristics of the unit; classification of these issues according to the characteristics; analysis of the collected data; comparison with the data collected from the survey; comparison and conclusions (Trochim, 2006c; Jacobsen, n.d.).

Alternative Choice

Thus, we will have the statistical data regarding not only the present situation but data about the past as well. We will be able to track all the issues and changes that had happened for the chosen period. As for the survey, we are going to use standard instruments for questioning unit representatives. We will give them standard questionnaires with the questions mentioned in the previous paper.

Implementation

The following hypotheses were used in the previous paper to conduct the survey. In order to evaluare morale we are to use the DASS 21 form to define psychological issues if they are present. To evaluate pride (Esprit De Corps) we will ask respondents to measure the following: Satisfaction – high/moderate/low/unsatisfactory in relation to the feeling of ‘pride’ due to serving in this unit; willing to participate – high/moderate/low in relation to the desire of soldiers to take part in every aspect of the unit’s activities (excluding warfare – it is mandatory); loyalty – full/intervening/non-sufficient in relation to support for any unit member outside warfare and within it (Trochim, 2006a).

Finally, in order to evaluate discipline, we are to ask the following questions: Were there cases of disobedience (yes/no)? Were the reasons for it subjective or objective (subjective/objective)? Does a soldier have second thoughts after hearing orders (no/what they are, if so)? Why is it so (no/description)? Does it affect discipline according to the solder’s understanding of the situation? Such an approach would allow researchers to evaluate discipline (absolutely anonymously) in terms of psychological attitude of units’ members to their commanding officers and the entire situation within the unit (Trochim, 2006a). Therefore, we are to use Pearson correlation for the first hypotheses; pared t-test for the second; and multiply regression for the third one. We are going to have full statistical picture regarding the situation within unit.

Description of Evaluation Process

It might look like different approaches to the measurement of these characteristics of the unit would generate data that might lead to the conflicting interpretations. However, it is not the case because our sampling scheme covers different layers of the unit in terms of ranks and people who serve there and our survey includes the questions that would provide us with rather clear and distinctive understanding of what is really happening within this unit. The kinds of data we are to obtain from the survey and archival research are going to serve as the background for evaluating the strength of the unit from the psychological side. We are to discover how strong this unit is in terms of morale, discipline, and pride for having the chance to serve in it.

 

References

Bacharach, S. & Bamberger, P. (2007). 9/11 and New York City Firefighters’ Post Hoc Unit Support and Control Climates: A Context Theory of the Consequences of Involvement in Traumatic Work-related Events. The Academy of Management Journal, 50(4), 849-868.

Figley, C. (2008). Impact of Event Scale Revised. Retrieved from: http://www.atft.org/research/Impact%20of%20Event%20Scale%20-%20Revised.htm

Mugo, F. (n.d.). Sampling in Research. Retrieved from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/tutorial/Mugo/tutorial.htm

Trochim, W. (2006). Research Methods Knowledge Base: Scaling. Retrieved from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/scalgen.php

University of New South Wales (UNSW) (n.d. a). Overview of the DASS and Its Uses. Retrieved from: http://www2.psy.unsw.edu.au/groups/dass//over.htm

University of New South Wales (UNSW) (n.d. b). DASS21 Survey Form. Retrieved 2008 from: http://www2.psy.unsw.edu.au/groups/dass//Down_W6_US/dass21.doc

Baker, S. (2003) The Complete Idiot’s Guide To Business Statistics. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=6cw6cpprIBgC&pg=PA36&lpg=PA36&dq=best+ways+to+display+data+for+basic+statistics+and+research+findings&source=bl&ots=QjLQDtI6Ro&sig=o5NSnOZLtlaOAcVAoaIw-iwPHU4&hl=en&ei=Ow4aSoG9EKeCtgOPw53bCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=17#PPA21,M1

Deacon, J. (n.d.). Student’s t-test. Retrieved from: http://www.biology.ed.ac.uk/research/groups/jdeacon/statistics/tress4a.html

Jacobsen, M. (n.d.). Complementary Research Methods. SERN. University of Calgary. Retrieved from: http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~dmjacobs/phd/methods/methods.ppt

Trochim, W. (2006a). Research methods knowledge base: Descriptive statistics. Retrieved from: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/statdesc.php

Trochim, W. (2006b). Research methods knowledge base: The T-test. Retrieved from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/stat_t.php

Trochim, W. (2006c). Research methods knowledge base: Surveys. Retrieved from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/survey.htm

 

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