Please help me to define the clause types, I need them to write my essay.

Using clauses is unavoidable in essay writing, so, you ought to know their classification in order to use them properly. English is not my first language,that is why, same as you, I used to have troubles with defining the types of clauses and make use of them in my essays. But recently I have decided to clarify this issues and want to help you now.

Generally, a clause can be defined as a group of word(or a phrase) which is a part of the sentence and contains a subject and a predicate. First of all clause are divided into:

1) Independent clauses.
They contain both the subject and the predicate and can stand alone as a separate sentence as it express a complete thought. For example: I got an A for my essay.
In addition, Independent clauses can be joined by a coordinating conjunction to form complex or compound sentences. Those conjunctions are: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet.
For example: I studied hard but didn’t get an A for my essay. 🙂

2)Dependent clauses.
These clauses contain both subject and predicate as well, but cannot stand alone as a sentence, because they express incomplete thought. In addition, they are usually introduced by subordinating conjunctions(after, although, yet, because, untill, etc.) or relative pronouns(that, which, whose, etc)
For example: Because I studied hard.

Moreover, it appears that dependent clauses are divided into more categories:

1.Noun clauses – introduced by subordinators what, where, why, how, where, when, who,whom, which, whose,whether, that, if.

2.Adjective clauses – introduced by subordinators who, whom, which,whose, that, where, when.

3. Adverbial clauses of: time (when, before, after,until, since, as soon as); place (where, wherever); cause (because, as, since); purpose (so that, in order that); result(so … that, such … that); condition ( if, unless); concession (although, even though)

Obviously, we often use clauses without giving a second thought to their classification and their meaning. Still, I believe that each student should be aware of these grammatical aspects.
Almost forgot, please mind that with noun clauses, no commas are used while adverb clauses that come before the independent clause are followed by a comma, but if they come after the independent clause, no comma is used.

Good luck with your essay!

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